El Gobierno envió al Congreso el proyecto de ley de emergencia Covid

El Gobierno nacional envió este lunes al Senado el «proyecto de ley Emergencia Covid» que establece parámetros sanitarios, epidemiológicos y demográficos a tener en cuenta para definir las acciones de mitigación viral, y determina las facultades del Presidente y de los gobernadores para dictar «medidas de cuidado de la población».

El anuncio de Alberto Fernández
El pasado 30 de abril, durante la presentación del Decreto de Necesidad y Urgencia que actualmente rige en todo el país, el presidente, Alberto Fernández, había anunciado el envío al Congreso de una iniciativa legislativaque, «en función de criterios científicos claros y precisos», facultara al Ejecutivo nacional y a los gobernadores «a tomar restricciones y medidas de cuidado durante esta situación excepcional».

En ese sentido, la iniciativa elaborada por la Casa Rosada recupera el esquema de riesgo epidemiológico ya plasmado en los últimos dos decretos que permite segmentar de acuerdo a la situación sanitaria actual y de los últimos 14 días en un espacio sociodemográfico determinado.

Alberto Fernández había anunciado esta inciiativa durante el anuncio de la extensión de las restricciones. Alberto Fernández había anunciado esta inciiativa durante el anuncio de la extensión de las restricciones.
«Es una obligación del Estado resguardar la salud y la vida. Queremos sentar bases en el Congreso sobre cómo abordamos una pandemia que pone en riesgo ambos derechos. Creemos que es un proyecto equilibrado», señalaron fuentes gubernamentales.

La propuesta que ingresó el lunes por la tarde al Senado de la Nación «no distingue entre zonas geográficas, sino que establece criterios estrictos, parámetros epidemiológicos conforme a los cuales las jurisdicciones y el Gobierno federal, según las competencias de cada uno, adoptarán medidas para mitigar la propagación del virus».

La Casa Rosada insiste con la posibilidad de que el debate parlamentario genere cambios en el proyecto, en el marco de un «diálogo siempre buscado» con la oposición.

En este marco, el proyecto fue girado a las comisiones de Asuntos Constitucionales y de Salud de la Cámara alta. El oficialismo pretende que tenga dictamen favorable en breve para que también se produzca rápidamente su sanción.

La propuesta del Ejecutivo propone «reglas generales para todo el país en las que se incluyen medidas de prevención, como uso obligatorio de barbijo, ventilación; y luego, la segmentación por riesgo epidemiológico».

En las zonas de bajo riesgo, «se aplican las conductas generales de prevención».

Luego, de acuerdo con diversos criterios sanitarios, que contemplan, entre otros puntos, la incidencia de casos, se va subiendo en la escala de las medidas.

En lugares designados como «riesgo medio», aparecen otras restricciones como las reuniones en casas particulares.

En aquellos que estén en «alto riesgo, se agrega por ley, la prohibición de las reuniones familiares, el cierre de salones de fiesta y de salones gastronómicos, prácticas recreativas en lugares cerrados, bingos, reuniones religiosas y restricciones adicionales de circulación».

«También se plantean medidas adicionales por parte de los gobernadores. Si las medidas no funcionan tras 21 días, se da potestad al Gobierno nacional para tomar medidas para evitar pasar a alerta», señalaron las fuentes.

El estado de «alarma» es caracterizado por la cercanía de una saturación del sistema sanitario.

«Ante ese escenario, se adoptan las siguientes medidas: cierres de ferias y shoppings, circulación limitada a partir de las 20», señalaron las fuentes gubernamentales.

En esa situación es «el Poder Ejecutivo quién está autorizado a tomar medidas adicionales», entre ellas, que «quede suspendida la presencialidad hasta que se pase a un estado inferior» de peligro.

Según el proyecto, el «estado de alarma» solo puede regir para conglomerados de más de 300 mil habitantes, mientras que en los lugares de menos de 40 mil se aplican las reglas generales y las decisiones adicionales de gobernadores.

La Casa Rosada insiste en que su proyecto solo faculta al Gobierno federal cuando las medidas adoptadas en un escenario de riesgo alto no hayan funcionado como se esperaba o en el contexto de una situación de alarma.

Esas medidas excepcionales deberán disponerse de manera «razonable y proporcionada, previa consulta con los gobernadores y con el Jefe de Gobierno» de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

Sobre posibles incumplimientos o judicializaciones de la futura ley, desde la Casa Rosada insistieron en la fortaleza que se conseguirá con el debate parlamentario.

Además, destacaron que las provincias continuarán ejerciendo las facultades concurrentes de control y fiscalización, mientras que las del Poder Ejecutivo «se encuentran condicionadas a la previa consulta con las autoridades jurisdiccionales»

El Gobierno prevé un tratamiento urgente de la Ley, ya que pretende la entrada en vigencia «desde el 22 de mayo», fecha de caducidad del actual DNU, y que se duración alcance hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2021, fecha en que vence la actual Ley de Emergencia Sanitaria.

Tras el envío del proyecto, la secretaria Legal y Técnica del Gobierno, Vilma Ibarra, señaló en diálogo con una señal televisiva que la iniciativa dispone que las «medidas más gravosas» se tomen «por un tiempo pequeño», y que las mismas luego se deben «controlar y medir» para determinar su continuidad o suspensión.

El proyecto «vamos a debatirlo y discutirlo, y esperamos que se comprenda que esta pandemia no se enfrenta en situaciones de rispidez y agresión, sino juntando voluntades para hacerlo», concluyó Ibarra.

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